What is the ” business models “, the “design thinking” and “coaching” have in common (apart from being in terms of franglais) ? These are management innovations, that is to say, new ways of organising the activities of the company. According to critics, recurring, these changes, which often do advance the innovation and effectiveness of the organization, have not yet been sources of major transformations, and renewed human relationships. Do they have a vocation to enable a better co-operation, relationships are more respectful, a life at work more fulfilling ?
There are three types of management innovations : those that relate to the management tools, for example, the ” brainstorming “, who was, after the second world war, to foster the creativity of the group ; those related to the organization of the work process, such as the “reingineering” in the 1980s, which was aimed at optimizing a production process by lowering the cost of interfaces between activities, or the “design thinking” which, in the last few years, promotes the technical innovation or product ; finally, innovations in the organization of the overall company, for example, the emergence of the tayloro-fordism in the early Twentieth century.
The innovation tools or processes are located in the broader framework of organizational models. They are the ones who traditionally transform social relations. Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) has developed a model of organization, which has deprived the workers of their autonomy in their job to put them at the service of an organization controlled by a group of experts on methods of work.
This model has been a real social innovation, based on a sharing of productivity gains between employees, shareholders, the State and the customers, which has made possible the production and the consumption of mass.